oxidation of phenol class 12

Published by on November 13, 2020

11.1. 11.11.Write the mechanism of hydration of ethene to yield ethanol. 2. Reduction of aldehyde, ketones and esters with No Alcohol is called Bouveault-blanc reduction. In allylic alcohols, – OH group is attached to sp3 hybridised carbon but next to C=C bond. (ii) Reaction involving cleavage of C-O bond in alcohols In these reactions, the reactivity order of different alcohols : Alkyl group due to +1 effect increases the electron density on the carbon and oxygen atom of C-OH bond. The dihydric phenol further rosy be ortho, meta’ or para derivative. It is a colourless, odourless, viscous and hygroscopic liquid. Alcohols are comparatively more soluble in water than hydrocarbons of comparable molecular masses. d) Dehydration of alcohols It requires acid catalyst and the reaction proceeds via intermediate carbonium ion. 1. (f) Grain alcohol Ethyl alcohol C2H5OH is also called grain alcohol. (vi) Butan-2-one to butan-2-ol. document.write(''); Phenol on treatment with dil. 6.trinitrophenol (picric acid) Higher Ka and lower pKa value corresponds to the stronger acid. It gives CH3OCH3 and CH3ONO. glycerol gives HCOOH and HCHO. 11.9. (vi) From primary amines By treatment with nitrous acid. The reaction of Williamson synthesis involves SN2 attack of an alkoxide ion on a primary alkyl halide. Alcohols and Phenols . 11.21. Greater the number of alkyl groups present, more will be the reactivity of alcohol. These also exhibit chain isomerism and metamerism. Ease of hydrolysis of alkyl halides RI > R – Br > RCI > and t > s > p alkyl halides. In IUPAC, system, alcohol or alkanols are named by replacing the last word ‘e’ of the corresponding alkane by ‘ol’. (b) By reduction of carboxylic acids and ester. Give the equations of reactions for the preparation of phenol from cumene. Dimethyl ether is used as refrigerant and as a solvent at low temperature. Hence, in place of ethers, alkenes are formed. Phenol is more acidic than alcohols due to stabilisation of phenoxide ion through resonance. The solubility decreases with increase in molecular mass. s = checkTime(s); (i) 1-phenylethanol from a suitable alkene. The given alcohols can be synthesized by applying Markovnikov’s rule of acid-catalyzed hydration of appropriate alkenes. The reaction with R’ COCI is carried out in the presence of pyridine so as to neutralise HCI which is formed during the reaction. (d) Power alcohol Alcohol mixed with petrol or fuel and used In internal combustion engines Is known as power alcohol. (ii) When chloromethylcyclohexane is treated with sodium hydroxide, cyclohexylmethanol is obtained. Alcohols are weaker acids than water due to +1 group present in alcohols, which decreases the polarity of -O-H bond. Ethers are the organic compounds in which two alkyl or aryl groups are attached to a divalent oxygen. The reaction produces a primary alcohol with methanol, a secondary alcohol with aldehydes (except methanal) and tertiary alcohol with ketones, To avoid dehydrohalogenation of RX, mild alkalies like moist. Give equations of the following reactions: (i) Oxidation of propan-1-ol with alkaline KMnO4 solution. var now = new Date(); (ii) It directs the incoming substituents to ortho and para positions in benzene ring. 4. (iii) When 1-chloropentane is treated with NaOH, pentan-1-ol is produced. In aryl alkyl ethers, due to the +R effect of the alkoxy group, the electron density in the benzene ring increases as shown in the following resonance structure. Preparation from alkene compound 2.

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