benzene and its derivatives b pharm ppt

Published by on November 13, 2020

Environ. Environ. Furthermore, the total combined daily intake per kilogram of body weight of all benzyl derivatives (0.5 mg in Europe and 1 mg in the USA) is less than the group ADI of 0–5 mg/kg bw for benzoic acid, the benzoate salts (calcium, potassium, and sodium), benzaldehyde, benzyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, and benzyl benzoate, expressed as benzoic acid equivalents, which was established by the Committee at its forty-sixth meeting (Annex 1, reference 122). In the Republic of Ireland, M. Pharm (Hons) degrees are offered by Trinity College, Dublin, University College Cork, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin. Zeiger, E., Anderson, B., Haworth, S., Lawlor, T. & Mortelmans, K. (1988) Salmonella mutagenicity tests: IV. (1988) Responses of the L5178Y tk+/tk– mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay: III. Pharmacy 2nd Year Subjects & Syllabus PDF B Pharm Second Year 3 + 4 Semester PDF DOWNLOAD. Unpublished report No. deGroot, A.P., Spanjers, M.T. Weekly measurement of body weight and food consumption revealed depressed growth rate and efficiency of food use in males at the high dose. Benzyl alcohol. Study of different routes of drugs administration in mice/rats. Hyg. Environ. 41766 from Leberco Laboratories, Roselle Park, USA. At its forty-sixth meeting, the Committee evaluated the five benzyl derivatives as a group and maintained the group ADI of 0–5 mg/kg bw as benzoic acid equivalents (Annex 1, reference 122). Haematological, blood chemical, and urine analyses gave normal values. The structural features common to this group of substances include an oxygenated functional group bonded directly to a benzene ring which may be ring-substituted with alkyl substituents. Marquardt, P. (1960) Zur Verträglichkeit der Benzoesäure. Methyl benzoate (No. After absorption, benzyl derivatives are metabolized and excreted within 24 h as polar metabolites, mainly as urinary hippuric acid (Table 3). Step A3b Does intake exceed the threshold for human intake? The natural occurrence and total annual production of these are discussed in sections 1.1 and 1.2, respectively, and summarized in Table 2. Aromatic Hydrocarbon - very "aromatic," hence the name. & Stanciu, V. (1967) Cercetari cu privire la toxicitatea aldehidei benzoice. (1983) Encephalopathy in rats and nephropathy in rats and mice after subchronic oral exposure to benzaldehyde. The benzyl derivatives are rapidly absorbed through the gut, metabolized primarily in the liver, and excreted in the urine as glycine conjugates of benzoic acid derivatives (Davison, 1971; Abdo et al., 1985; Temellini, 1993), as discussed by the Committee at its forty-sixth meeting, when it evaluated benzyl alcohol (No. Benzene and Its Derivatives. Haworth, S., Lawlor, T., Mortelmans, K., Speck, W. & Zeiger, E. (1983) Salmonella mutagenicity test results for 250 chemicals. Environ. Hyg., 28, 463–476. Primary metabolites: Carbohydrates: Acacia, Agar, Tragacanth, Honey, Proteins and Enzymes: Gelatin, casein, proteolytic enzymes (Papain, bromelain, serratiopeptidase, urokinase, streptokinase, pepsin). & Wenk, M.L. chemical and biological methods and properties. Moreno, O.M. Sci., 103, 64–75. Cuminyl alcohol, tolyl aldehyde, geranyl benzoate, benzyl propionate, benzyl butyrate, linalyl benzoate. Benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde are rapidly oxidized to benzoic acid, while benzoate esters are hydrolysed to benzoic acid and alcohols. Wong, L.C.K. Benzaldehyde acetals are hydrolysed to yield the aldehyde. Table 6. Schafer, E.W. Mutag., 5, 482 (Abstract Ef-5). Toxicol., 16, 255–276. Nakamura, S., Oda, Y., Shimada, T., Oki, I. Mouse, M Bull. (1984) Mutagenicity studies of p-substituted benzyl derivatives in the Ames Salmonella plate-incorporation assay. At autopsy, no treatment-related abnormalities were observed, and the weights of the livers and kidneys were within normal limits for both groups. Sporn, A., Dinu, I. The following sections give only summaries of the results of studies described in detail in that review. Unpublished report No. In early 19th century, the term aromatic was used to describe some fragrant compounds Not correct: later they are grouped by chemical behavior (unsaturated compounds that undergo substitution rather than addition). 23), benzyl aldehyde (No. Mol. & Zeiger, E. (1986) Salmonella mutagenicity tests: II. National Toxicology Program (1990) Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of benzaldehyde in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (gavage studies) (NTP-TR-378; NIH Publication No. National Toxicology Program (1989) Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of benzyl alcohol in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (gavage studies) (NTP-TR-343; NIH Publication No. Intake expressed as µg/person per day calculated as follows: [(annual volume, kg) x (1 x 109 µg/kg)/ (population x survey correction factor x 365 days)], where population (10%, ‘eaters only’) = 32 x 106 for Europe and 26 x 106 for the USA. 2131-110/233 from Hazleton, Harrogate, England. Determination the solubility of drug at room temperature. 13. The remaining alcohol or acid components formed by hydrolysis are simple aliphatic substances that are either oxidized to polar, excretable metabolites or metabolized in the fatty acid pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle. 25), benzaldehyde (No. Mutat. determining surface area, permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders. & Bowles, W.A. On the basis of these studies, the Committee concluded that neither benzyl acetate nor benzyl alcohol is carcinogenic. Subacute and chronic toxicity. 10/10, Gavage Appl. Benzyl aldehydes are oxidized to the corresponding acids. Therefore, benzyl 2-methoxyethyl acetal does not pose a safety concern at the estimated level of intake. Xenobiotica, 19, 843–855. Benzyl isovalerate. Learn how your comment data is processed. Toxicol., 27, 227–232. Yoshikawa, K. (1996) Anomalous nonidentity between Salmonella genotoxicants and rodent carcinogens: Nongenotoxic carcinogens and genotoxic noncarcinogens. 868) was administered orally at a dose of 2 g to male rabbits, and their urine was collected for 3 days after treatment. Health Perspectives, 104, 40–46. However, these flavouring agents are expected to be efficiently detoxicated and would not saturate the available detoxication pathways. In: Fifth North American ISSX Meeting, Tucson, AZ, 17–21 October 1993. c. Drug interactions (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic). camera lucida and diagrams of microscopic objects to scale with camera lucida. Colloidal dispersions: Classification of dispersed systems & their general characteristics, size & shapes of colloidal particles, classification of colloids & comparative account of their general properties. 851) are < 0.1 (Stofberg & Kirschman, 1985; Stofberg & Grundschober, 1987) (Table 2). Biochem. Additional groups of five rats of each sex were given the compound at a dose of 0, 250, or 500 mg/kg bw per day for 2 or 6 weeks by the same route. Taylor, J.M., Jenner, P.M. & Jones, W.I. Physical and chemical factors influencing the chemical degradation of pharmaceutical product: temperature, solvent, ionic strength, dielectric constant, specific & general acid base catalysis, Simple numerical problems. Alcohol & their carbamate derivatives: Meprobomate, Ethchlorvynol. Environ. Unpublished report No. Kuroda, K., Yoo, Y.S. & Mitchell, A.D. (1988) The mutagenic activity of selected compounds at the TK locus: Rodent vs. human cells. 13 weeks Anderson, D. & Styles, J.A. (1979) Acute oral toxicity (rat). Cumyl alcohol and 2-(para-carboxyphenyl)propionic acid were minor metabolites (Ishida et al., 1989). Effect of drugs on locomotor activity using actophotometer. (1989) Age related changes in disposition of benzyl acetate (BA): A model compound for glycine conjugation. Jansson, T., Curvall, M., Hedin, A. 30967 from Leberco Laboratories, Roselle Park, USA. Dissociative anesthetics: Ketamine hydrochloride.*. 4-Ethyl benzaldehyde. Rat, M,F receptors, addiction, tolerance, dependence, tachyphylaxis, idiosyncrasy, allergy. Hoffmann-LaRoche (1967) Acute toxicity, eye and skin irritation tests on aromatic compound, linalyl benzoate.

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